Since my arrival in Spain seven years ago, my research of Spanish seniors (Francisco Polini, Lt. Louisiana Governor under the leadership of Bernardo de Galvez) has helped us realize how little we Americans know of the vital importance of Spain's assistance in our war of independence from English grammar.
The following is wonderful from my research and discussions with other interested Americans in Spain and the United States. It began with his desire to share this information with his American colleagues who, in my company (www.rentalspain.com), set up short-term furnished apartments for tourist and administrative residences in Madrid and grew up to become members of the SAR region and with the Commission.
My hope is that the reader will get my desire to learn more and spread the word in an attempt to fill this gap in a very important part of our nation's history.
At the end of the Spanish Caliphate War 1713-14
Britain was in possession of Gibraltar and Menorca. Over the next fifty years, there have been a number of European wars and constant struggle for control that even included Russia and Poland.
However, the real starting point of this suspension was the Seven Years War from 1756 to 1763. In the final year, Spain joined France through the third Bourbon family and then participated in its defeat by Britain.
In the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Spain lost Florida, which included the Gulf coast to the former Louisiana territory. Portugal lost to Uruguay.
France lost both Canada and India, and gave up Britain all its territory east of the Mississippi River. However, New Orleans and Louisiana's vast Louis XV region felt better to Bourbon Spain.
The size of this land was huge! Parts of Minnesota, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama are included.
In the wake of the treaty, Britain was too tired to hold on to many of these booty and returned the Guadeloupe and Martinique islands to France and Cuba to Spain. However, it retained trade and sales rights and activities throughout the Caribbean.
The king of Spain, Carlos III, was an elusive royal monarch. He took this defeat to his heart and ordered the building of his naval and military forces at the time when he and Britain were once again at war.
At the same time, he put in place economic and administrative reforms that began with the economic renewal of Spain and its American holdings.
When was the time for Spain, why did they join forces with France to support the colonies?
Spain wanted the return of Gibraltar and Menorca, the control of Florida, Jamaica and the Bahamas, and control of navigation on the Mississippi River. He also wanted to eliminate the British institutions on the east coast of Mexico and Honduras.
To achieve this, Carlos III and his ministers decided to divide and rule. This means that by helping the "rebellious English colonies" struggling for their independence, they can link British funds, embezzlement and soldiers in North America, while Spanish troops began to clear the British directly from the Caribbean.
As history has shown, Spain's division and corruption strategy has provided special assistance to "rehabilitate British colonizers" in achieving victory and independence.
In the opinion of the book, the history of Spain's contributions is more interesting through visions of those chosen by Carlos III to accomplish his goals.
Jose Monnino y Redodo, Conde de Floridablanca: Minister of State – probably the most important non-combatant, if not a person, in all this. The rebuilding of the naval and military forces of Carlos III took a long time. Unlike France which publicly declared war on Britain in 1776 in support of rebellious English colonies, Floridablanca kept Spain from declaring war on Britain until 1779. Spain was ready to do so.
He was persistently trying to get Britain out of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean until the signing of peace in 1783. Only in the failure to restore Gibraltar and the capture of Jamaica did he fail to achieve his goal.
Pedro Pablo Abarca de Puglia, Conde de Aranda: Minister of Spain to France. At the insistence of Floridablanca was the only Spanish representative through which formal work could be done with the American Commission, headed by Benjamin Franklin, and only in Paris. In fact, in 1777, one of the commissioners was prevented from entering northern Spain to protect Spain's "neutrality" toward the British.
Aranda's close relationship with the American Commission has made his transformation into their cause and very supportive of America. So much so that he pressed Madrid to declare Spain's war on Britain years before the rule of its president, Conde de Floridaplanca, Spain is ready to do so.
Diego Maria de Garoqui Aniquibar: Basque – President of Gardoqui e Hijos Banking in Bilbao. He spoke English and was one of a few non-governmental participants in the case.
Through his bank, financial aid and supplies such as blankets, shoes, socks and medicines flow into the colonies across New Orleans. He worked secretly on US special forces, such as John Paul Jones, who would come to the ports of Bilbao and northern Spain to sell booty from their swarms of British merchant ships.
In 1785, he became Spain's first ambassador to the United States.
In one sense, Spain's contribution to the American Revolution can be called the "Macharalla family"
These three members of the Galvez family were all born in the small Spanish hill town located on the southern coast of the Mediterranean, not far from Malaga.
José de Galvez – Minister of the Council of the Islands of India and the patron of his older brother Matthias and his nephew, Bernardo de Galvez. Jose had full responsibility for Spain's wartime activities in the Americas, and through the Minister of State, Floridaplana convinced Carlos III that the priority of Spain in the Americas should be the defeat of the British in Florida along the Gulf Coast and over the Mississippi River before focusing its efforts on the campaign Caribbean.
Matthias de Galvez, Brother to José and Father Bernardo de Galvez. Like other members of his family, he quickly rose to the highest military rank and was appointed general in Guatemala in 1779, where British logging, illegal trade and smuggling became a major drain on Spain's income in Central America.
He quickly succeeded in defeating and stopping British activities across the Gulf of Mexico in Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. More importantly, he was a key player in Spain's "divide and rule" policy, with his activities preventing British strategists from concentrating their forces against the Coloulette Rivault or the Caribbean.
For his achievements he was named "Viceroy of Nueva Espana" and died in this position in Mexico. Later, he will be followed by his son Bernardo, who also died in that position in 1786 at the age of forty.
Bernardo de Galvez Bernardo de Galvez After a very successful military parade under his uncle Jose in Nueva Espana, which included the fight against American Indians and the expulsion of the Spanish Jesuit priest from the western part of the continent of North America. He was appointed governor of Louisiana in 1776.
From 1776 to 1783 his diplomatic, financial and military reactor against the British in the Mississippi River Valley, along the Florida Gulf coast and contributing to the defeat of the British in Yorktown, proved them all to be the most direct and additional contributions in Spain. The American Revolution.
In 1775, Spain was stockpiling guns, bullets and clothing in New Orleans in anticipation of the Declaration of Independence from the Colonies. Even the inland waterways of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers will eventually reach George Washington's forces on the east coast.
Along with the Irish-American trader and Virginia worker Oliver Pollock, Bernardo provided successful US campaigns led by George Rogers Clark against the British in trans-Alagan areas (Pennsylvania and Ohio today). Thanks to Bernardo's wartime activities, these were the only British attacks on the colonists along their western borders.
By the end of the war, Pollock had bankrupted himself and lost his territory to buy supplies from Spain in support of the United States. In the years following the war, Bernardo came to help him get compensation from Congress.
The Spanish forces fought under the leadership of Bernardo de Galvez, where there was not a single American colony.
Based on Spain's declaration of war in 1779, Bernardo immediately set out from New Orleans to defeat the British. Just 90 miles from the Mississippi River, they were first defeated at Fort Boat in Manchak and Thanton Baton Rouge
1780 – His troops took the British fort in what is now St. Louis, Missouri.
1781 – led by the French militia led by Spain from St. Francis. Lewis won the winter win at St. Louis Joseph on the shores of Lake Michigan !!
Battle of Mobile. It was three months in the making of time that Galvez sailed from New Orleans to his victory.
The year before, a cyclone had sunk 400 of his men while on his way. Once again he was affected by the weather when he arrived at the port, followed by the sinking of his ships at the mouth of the port. While he had always received reinforcements from Havana on the eve of his attack, this was not before his original forces had unloaded the stranded ships and moved the supplies and guns to its position.
In the end he had collected about 800 men against 200 British guns. But as he was preparing to attack, a British force of 1,100 Pensacola had traveled three distances behind him, so one can not say exactly that he has the advantage!
The governor of Louisiana under Gallvez, Francesco Poulini, was an acquaintance and met the British leader in an attempt to get an early surrender. But this man has replied that this honor has made him not give up without fighting.
The battle took place and surrender in a day!
Luckily for Galvez, when he heard the surrender, the commander of Pensacola troops simply went home.
For this success Carlos III Cave of Bernardo de Galvez was named "Field Marshal of the Spanish Process in the Americas".
1781 – Battle of Pensacola – As far as Bernardo wanted to move directly from Mobile on this port, he was unable to do so for another year because of the lack of support from Havana and another hurricane that blocked traffic at the site.
Unlike the mobile when he was supporting his troops with his own ships in Pensacola Galvez also was the Spanish naval fleet from Havana. As commander-in-chief, he eventually had to exaggerate and insult naval commanders to enter the port and engage the enemy. It was because their Admiral's ship ran around this approach and strongly refused entry into the port.
There was Bernardo Alon on his ship The Galvezton, which entered the port under fire from the British fort and set up a beach head. After seeing this, small naval vessels entered the port and began the real work to prepare for the attack on the castle in the end. Like Mobile, his soldiers had to deal with their guns and supplies on their site.
At this stage he had 3500 men and with the arrival of the Spanish and French reinforcements combined from Havana, the total number reached 7000 men.
On the second day of the bombing, a Spanish Hautzer gunman destroyed and destroyed the warehouse in the outer defenses, killing about 150 men. It is reported that Francisco Pollini led one of the first charges through devastating battles and British colors fell
For this success, Bernardo de Galvez received the title "Condi de Galvez" and the permission to put a silhouette of his ship "Galvitson" and "U Solo" (I am alone) on his coat
Shortly thereafter in 1781, Bernardo set up a revolution in Natchez on the Mississippi River and carried out purges around Florida.
October 1781 – Battle of Yorktown, Virginia. Although there were no Spanish troops, he was a strategic expert in Bernardo, Captain Francisco de Saavedra, who planned and funded the presence of the French fleet and armies and his assistance to the forces of George Washington. In Yorktown the British army surrendered under Lord Cornwallis to this joint French and American force.
It can be said that the unknown hero of this part of the Revolutionary War is the same:
Captain Francisco de Saavedra de Sangronis. He was born in Sevilla. Like Jose de Galvez, he was trained in theology for monastic life, but later turned to the army and was invited to the court of Carlos III.
In 1776 he worked at the Embassy of Spain in Portugal.
After the Spanish declaration of war against England, Savidra was sent to Havana in 1780 as the "Royal Commissioner of the Court of Madrid" and was imprisoned in the Spanish Administrative Authority of the Americas under Jose de Galvez.
Savidra's orders from Madrid convinced the General Committee of War in Havana to support the Bernardo de Galvez attacks on the west coast of Florida Bay. After convincing them, he then supervised preparations for a campaign of 3,500 troops, including a French contingent of four frigates and 750 men, to reactivate the Bernardo de Galvez attack on Pensacola.
Then to Pensacola, Saavedra became the main strategist of Bernardo and the main contact of the French forces. In fact, the French asked him to transfer it to the staff of their naval commander, Count Francois Joseph Paul de Grays. Was instrumental in shaping French strategies in the Caribbean. Bernardo de Galvez was authorized to launch the French fleet from the Caribbean expedition and sail north to Virginia. In addition, fundraising in Santo Domingo and Havana to pay for the French fleet and the participation of the army in the battle for the climate for the independence of the United States in Yorktown.
After Yorktown, Saavedra served as "Vice-King Nueva Espana", Matthias de Galvez, as his strategist, in defeating the British across the Caribbean. His plan for an amphibious attack on British Jamaica was equally reliable in the size of some of the major amphibious invasions of World War II.
Years later, he became one of Spain's national champions when he organized and led the resistance against Napoleon's troops during their occupation of Spain.
Spain signed a peace agreement with Britain on 20 January 1783,
What it may be:
If Britain had restored Gibraltar in 1777, Spain may have refrained from supporting France when it declared war on the colonial side in 1776. However, at that time, King George III said no to negotiations.
Two years later, in 1779, Gibraltar was back on the negotiating table, but this time King Carlos III felt that protecting the interests of the Gulf and the Caribbean by pushing Britons abroad was more important than peace with Britain and Gibraltar. Back s.
Financial contribution to Spain:
In addition to guns, powder, bullets, clothes and blankets sent by Carlos III to the colonies, Spain has provided an amazing amount of money and credit.
In May 1776, Spain and France co-founded the fictitious company of Roderique Hortalez et Cie in Paris. Each State provided an initial investment of one million liters ($ 750,000) of ammunition and supplies. They then opened a credit line of 7,730,000 levers ($ 5,797,500). Later, they provided another three million leavers ($ 2.25 million) paid by the colonies with tobacco, nickel, potash and rice.
The owners of Bilbao, Gardoki Hegos, Bilbao, alone have sent 70,000 pesos ($ 2 million).
As mentioned earlier, Savidra strategically financed the French fleet and 5,000 soldiers in Yorktown, first collecting 100,000 pesos ($ 3 million) in Spanish, Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo. He then sailed to Havana, where he found a shipment of one million pesos of silver mines in Mexico that he expected late. Thus, within two days, he was raised locally and sent 500,000 pesos ($ 15 million) to catch up with the French fleet that was already on its way to Virginia! Five days later the original million ($ 30 million) arrived and sent it as well! Much of this was simply delegated to the word Saavedra and Jose de Galvez signature!
Of the territory of Nueva Spain contributed $ 126,480 from New Mexico and another $ 672,600 from Sonora Mexico.
Toldeo Spain: contributed $ 500,000 ($ 1,875,000). The small town of Malaga has 200,000 copper ($ 37,500).
Critical impact of Spain's contribution:
Not surprisingly, this size of the Spanish currency that flows into the colonies has affected the new US currency – and its appearance. For centuries Spain used the pillars of Heraclius to symbolize its control over the Strait of Gibraltar. Greek pillars usually surround the royal shield and damage it with a ribbon. Colonists came to refer to the Spanish currency as S occupies two vertical lines through which, which developed into the US dollar mark today.
The word "dollar" came from the German line of "Thaler" Spanish Habsburg, and became the English word for the Spanish peso used through Spain and the Spanish colonies. Colonists used this word and made their new currency name despite the spelling of the dollar's clarity.
In 1775, a year before the Declaration of Independence, the first issue of continental paper money was provided that the bonds were payable "in US dollars or the value in gold or silver."
American children know the value of money "two distributions, four bits of six bits, a dollar" that takes its origin from the Spanish "piece of eight" – a coin that can be physically divided into 8 equal parts or equal parts. And equal two of the eight "quarter" US, or 25 cents.
For its alliance with France to support the rebellious English colonies, Spain wanted Gibraltar, Menorca, Florida, Jamaica, and the Bahamas to control the estuary of the Mississippi River. In addition, British installations on the eastern coast of Mexico and Honduras were destroyed.
In the end, the colonies won their independence and Spain achieved all its objectives except for the capture of Jamaica and the restoration of Gibraltar.
In October 2006, the daughters of the American Revolution placed a painting in the Casa de Américas Garden in Madrid in recognition of Spain's contribution to American independence. Two nights later, the Spanish Council of the American Naval Association (www.nlmadrid.org) presented the highest officer of the Spanish armed forces, the highest award, the statue of Admiral Varagot, thanking and appreciating Spain's contribution to American independence.
The leader was responsible for accepting the prize, and he replied by noting that when Spain was large and the colonies needed it, Spain had its support, and that while it reflected these roles, Amistad still existed.