The theme park is the capital of the world


Review of Orlando

Dazzling theme parks, magnificent views, enchanting greenery, stunning architecture and lively streets – these are some features of the city nicknamed “Theme Park of the Capital of the World”, Orlando.
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The fountain on Lake Eola is a symbol of a beautiful city and is one of the main tourist destinations in the world. It attracts an average of more than 60 million visitors a year. Its main commercial airport, Orlando International Airport (ICA), is the thirteenth busiest airport in the country and the 29th busiest in the world.
It is also one of the busiest American cities for conventions and conferences. Orlando was included in the list of world cities “Gamma-” in the inventory of the group of world cities. It also ranks the fourth most popular city in America by where people want to live, according to a 2009 Pew Research Center study.
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Problematic interests

Orlando is best known for its number of brilliant and spicy theme parks, which are a major attraction for visitors to the city. The most famous are: The Magic World of Harry Potter, Discovery Bay, Universal Adventure Islands, The Magic Kingdom, Walt Disney World, Universal Studios Florida, Orlando SeaWorld, Disney Animal Kingdom, Disney World, Disney’s Lagoon Lagoon Park, Epco America Fun Spot America, Aquatica, Disney’s Boardwalk, I-Drive 360, Wet ‘n Wild, ESPN Wide World of Sports, Holy Land Experience, Camp Disney, Crayola Experience, Magical Midway, Star Wars Launch Bay, CoCo Resort Key Water, Hukoo’s family entertainment, despised by me Minion Mayhem, the sum of all the thrills and VIP Tour experiences from Walt Disney’s World VIP Tour.
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Apart from the brilliant theme parks, the vibrant city offers a number of attractions that one could try. The main ones are Basilica of the National Shrine of Mary, Queen of the Universe – Sacred and Religious Site, Orlando International Premium Outlets – Factory Outlet, International Drive – Attraction, Orlando Premium Outlets – Vineland Avenue – Factory Outlet, Harry P Leu Gardens – Garden, SKELETONS: Animals – Museum of Nature, Florida – Shopping Center, Orlando Madame Tussauds – Museum of Specialties, as well as a service trolleybus – Tramway.
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Fans of drama and theater can indulge in some of the most spectacular performances of stage crafts in La Nuba – Cirque du Soleil, Amway Center, The Hoop-Dee-Doo Music Revue, Blue Man Group, Festival of the Lion King and Dr. Dr. Phillips Center. for the performing arts.
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The best time to study

January-April is the best time to travel to Orlando when you can find pleasant temperatures as well as find cheap flights to Orlando and affordable accommodation. However, some airlines offer cheap flights to Orlando throughout the year.
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These counterfeit digital assets are decentralized, unlike physical money, which is regulated by each country’s central bank. Ownership of these digital assets is encrypted and a locking system allows for transfer of ownership.
Read also: Notes on the Digital Currency Plan in China
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But to ensure that it is used by only one entity, the split ledger accepts the transaction made by the first user, rejecting all other blocks. In this way, two different entities cannot use the same cryptocurrency, thus creating a secure financial system.
However, there are other ways security breaches can occur in this cryptocurrency world. The crypto package is what some digital coin miners do to illegally access many computers. Miners secretly drop malware onto an unsuspecting user’s computer.



Sun Country and American Airlines: the smartest way to fly with them!


Sun Country Airlines is a low-cost US airline headquartered in the suburbs of Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. It is based at the nearby Minneapolis St Paul International Airport. The airline’s main focus is on people’s flights to warmer destinations during the winter months, such as Florida and Mexico.
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Accordingly, in the summer months it focuses on the flight of people between Minneapolis and the east and west coasts. It operates regular and charter flights to the United States, Mexico and the Caribbean. Sun Country Deals Make sure your vacation starts from the moment you decide to get Sun Country Airlines tickets because they offer hassle-free hassle-free travel. Trust us, when we talk about it, almost invariably you will fly with them constantly, because no other leading airline offers such competitive prices and certainly no one can meet the bar set by them.
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We can’t think of anyone who wouldn’t appreciate cheap airfare. Sun Country airlines offer the same, but with the added benefits of luxury flying. Basic fares are designed solely with the passenger’s budget constraints in mind. What is more reassuring is that Sun Country Airlines emphasizes the fact that passenger comfort is paramount, and they leave no stones to achieve this.
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American Airlines flights, otherwise known as “American”, can be called the most preferred flights in the United States. American Airlines tickets offer bag tracking services from your smartphone, laptop and tablet, which will save you the hassle of waiting in long queues and wasting time for your luggage to arrive. They have also introduced new aircraft with the best entertainment options that will make sure you are not bored throughout the flight.
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One of the many things a “flying American” will do for you is that they will allow you to access luggage changes, all new phishing emails and the ability to turn miles into happy memories with your Advantage program. American Airlines, Inc. is the epitome of strength in numbers because it is the world’s largest airline when measuring scheduled passenger traffic, revenue, fleet size and the second largest number of seats visited.
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American Airline is also very environmentally friendly as they have treatment plants that process water to wash the aircraft, irrigate the landscape and treat the water tanks. This has led to a 50% reduction in waste since 2000.
This is a win-win situation for anyone who wants to take advantage of the services of a major airline with the added benefit of knowing that the airline is returning to the environment. Booking American Airlines has made check-in, boarding and arrival extremely easy.
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You can check flight status, safety and information collection when and when you want. They are truly committed to providing a comfortable experience for all their customers. Their services are of high quality and necessary for a pleasant journey with the added advantage of fairly cheap airline tickets.
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Cheap airline tickets can be found over time


After doing a little research online, you will be able to find cheap air tickets to many destinations, but to find the best deals may take some time. Despite the search and effort required, the money you can save can be worth the time spent. However, if you find what looks like a good deal, don’t stop looking until all the possibilities have been explored.
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For example, a search for round-trip air tickets departing and returning from the same destination on the same dates found fares ranging from $ 180 to $ 450. Offered cheap airfare with different times of day if the search fields do not marked none, however in some cases flights without round-the-clock traffic were somewhat cheaper than those with one or two stops. However, on the websites of cheap airline providers, if you are looking for flights outside the originally offered date range, the cost increases significantly.
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The main disadvantage of booking cheap tickets online is that in most cases tickets are non-refundable and non-transferable. This means that in case you can’t complete the trip, you lose the money spent on tickets, and there are usually no exceptions. While most people don’t book flights until they see their dates and times, emergencies arise that can change plans.
The time when you search also affects. With discounts on airline tickets and the fate of airlines all depends on the economy. If the Middle East and its oil are in danger, then oil prices rise and the cost of airlines falls. Airlines base all their discounts on the economy. If the year is good, there will be big discounts on airline tickets. There is always the usual discount on a two-week purchase, but the decline becomes deeper as gas prices fall. Since it costs the population more money to fill their gas tanks, the same goes for airlines.
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So if you are looking for a great fare to make a trip, consider two tips. Don’t waste time to explore all the possibilities and find the best deal. Also watch the news and get information about the situation in the world economy. If oil prices reach the highest prices, you may need to wait some more time to make “once in a lifetime” trips.



Sex in Cessna, part II


Sex in Cessna or in any light plane can be admirable, and since your flight instructor has never taught you how to do it, you’ll need to read all of these series of articles from a series of articles, we don’t want you to wind things up like that. In the first part, we explained the need for practice and separation between other aircraft that do not allow the flight of other aircraft and set the aircraft in flight.

Remember that you are far from limited areas such as Washington. I can’t say exactly what those guys from “Cessna 150” thought they were doing, but they had to tear their heads off. Flying into limited airspace is definitely not a place to be caught with your pants down. They were lucky that they didn’t get their donkeys taken down from the sky by an F-16 that rolled over their TAS at 500 Kts. So be careful to have enough space to complete your mission during sex in Cessney.

Now you have the seat all back and you are locked in place. Your female colleague also had to fail. Now you have to choose your sexual positions. There are many options, so choose exactly what you want to do first. Trying to change positions is inconvenient, so it’s best to finish one seat before setting another. If you’re going to take a few different positions, you may want to turn the plane around and go the other way. Also change the height so that you are walking in the right direction to the height at which you are.

It is best to wipe a towel at hand, an important sexy towel. Please don’t throw it out the side window when it runs out, we have enough rubbish. Also, if it lands in someone’s yard, they will be able to tell what it was used for, and that’s just wrong. If you are on a leased aircraft, check the seat lanes before ascending, some pegs in the seat mechanisms are not working properly and will not remain locked in place until you enter it.

If you are at the bottom and part of the female rack is at the top, you want to put the seat at about 30 degrees so you can still see outside the plane. Be careful not to hit your knees or feet in the yoke as you could change the direction of the flight. If you are on a rented aircraft that does not have autopilot, you can fly with your feet to a limited extent. If so, you may want to try this a few times before trying to have sex in Cessna.

End of Part II



How to go about choosing a flying school


There are people who are lucky enough to live next to many flight schools. In this case, comparing packages becomes a very easy matter. However, no matter how many schools there are, it is important to consider some things that will allow you to find yourself in a better school.

Like choosing any other school, you don’t choose the very first school you encounter. It is necessary to consider the aircraft used, the type of instructors they have, and the training conditions. Flying is fun, and so should learning. Here are some factors to consider.


Never expect flight lessons to be cheap. That’s why most students will try to save as much as they can before they start. It is also wise to compare the prices of different schools to cut costs.

When comparing costs, don’t just focus on rent. Other things such as fee structure, aircraft rental cost, instructor fees, handling fees, taxes, fuel prices and insurance. You need to watch out for any hidden costs. Ask any questions you may have and get a quote about everything you will need during the workout.

Powers and experience of flight instructors

Choosing an instructor who has all the necessary credentials is very important, but it is not the only one. You need to know how long such a person has been working as an instructor. Find out where they were trained. Getting more information from alumni can be an added benefit. However, you need to know that some instructors have been working for many years but not so well. There are also fresh ones that have just hit the market and are great. This means that flight hours alone should not be the determining factor. Find someone who facilitates communication and someone who will help you feel comfortable.

Reputation in relevant bodies

Make sure they meet all the standards set in your area. Authorities can help you determine the best schools around. Find out if there have been any violations at the school in the past and if no incidents have been reported. You don’t want to invest in school with questions. The airport and other similar businesses can also help you in making such a decision.

Lesson plans and course structure

Different flight schools use different rules. It is necessary to determine the rules used, although the end result is usually the same. The only difference is the methods used in training. Depending on your own schedule, you may find that some rules are quite structured and the instructor may actually change classes. This gives room for some flexibility and can suit someone who has a tight schedule.



The best airlines flying to the US


Delta overhead lines

Delta Air Lines is a major US airline based in Atlanta, Georgia, with an expanded domestic and international network. Delta operates flights from London Gatwick, Manchester, Edinburgh, Dublin and Shannon to major hubs in New York, JFK, Cincinnati and Atlanta.


The continental airline, headquartered in Houston, Texas, is the fourth largest airline in the United States.

The airline flies to Newark and Houston from all major UK airports including London Gatwick, Manchester, Birmingham, Bristol, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dublin, Belfast and Shannon.

Virgin of the Atlantic

Virgin Airline Richard Branson operates long-distance routes between the UK and North America from the main base in London Heathrow. The airline has smaller bases in London’s Gatwick and Manchester Airport. Virgin flights to the U.S. include Newark International Airport, New York JFK, Baltimore, Washington Dulles, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando, Las Vegas, Los Angeles and San Francisco.

American Airlines

AAA is the largest U.S. airline and is located in Fort Worth, Texas, near Dallas / Fort Worth International Airport. The American operates regular flights from London, Manchester and Dublin to Boston, New York JFK, Chicago, Raleigh / Durham, Dallas, Miami and Los Angeles.

British Airways

The British airline operates a huge number of international flights to the US from the UK. The airline is one of the preferred carriers flying from London to New York JFK, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington Dulles, Atlanta, Orlando, Los Angeles and many more. British Airways also offers flights to Canada, including international airports in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.



Retirement planning – the pros and cons of living in Panama


If you view Panama as a place to retire, then this article is for you. Here you will find the benefits of retiring in Panama as well as the reasons why this country may not be suitable for some people. Panama is currently home to thousands of American and European expats and continues to gain a steady influx of tourists and retirees. Read on to find out why Panama has become the second home of many Americans, and learn why some people just go there on vacation.


· Low cost of living – People who have moved to Panama love the fact that this is a place where the cost of living is very cheap. The couple can dine at a Panamanian restaurant for less than $ 8, including drinks. You can also get health insurance for $ 60 a month. Panama is a place where essentials and health care are very inexpensive; thus, people who have moved to this country feel a more comfortable life. Expots are also eligible to apply for the Retirement Retirement Program, which can give them huge discounts on many things, including food and airfare. Pension funds can be stretched to the fullest in Panama so that one can live well and afford luxuries.

· World-class healthcare – Panama is well known for its medical tourism. People from all over the world go to Panama for high standard but inexpensive medical procedures. Panama has many modern and contemporary hospitals that are comparable to American, Canadian and European. Many Panamanian physicians are also graduates of American universities. Therefore, healthcare in Panama has excellent quality that can match medical in the US and Canada.

· Beautiful and quiet atmosphere – Panama boasts attractive tourist destinations and residential villages that are beautiful and soothing. Choose whether you want to stay in a cool mountain range, be close to the beach or experience city life. Panama offers really beautiful scenery and lots of outdoor activities. Whether you want to go hiking, swimming, bird watching or rafting on the river, Panama offers a relaxed atmosphere that can relieve stress.

· The economy boom – Panama is a very financially stable country, which receives most of its income from the Panama Canal. According to Wikipedia, Panama City continues to experience economic growth due to the constant expansion of the Panama Canal, which greatly contributes to trade and industry. Panama derives most of its profits from banking, trade and tourism. Expanding roads, improving the airport, widening the Panama Canal and many other infrastructure and development projects are planned this year and for years to come.

· A safe place to live – Panamanians, as a rule, peacefully love people who are accustomed to lead a quiet life. The crime rate in Panama is low as many citizens have jobs.


· Tropical weather – It can be either an advantage or a disadvantage depending on your needs. The climate in Panama is tropical, so expect a lot of sun and rain. The summer months can be uncomfortably hot and humid, and other parts of the year rainy. However, in Panama there is one place where the weather is much cooler and this place is known as Panama Boquete. Because of its spring climate year-round, many Americans began living in Bokeh.

· Undisciplined traffic system – Panama is not very orderly when it comes to how its rules and traffic rules are followed. Red theft doesn’t always mean a stop, as well as a host of parking and traffic laws. It may take a while to get used to this “madness”, especially when coming from countries with well-regulated traffic.

· Cultural differences – Panama is a Spanish-speaking country that has its own unique culture. While Panamanians are very friendly people, they don’t respond very well to criticism and aggressive demands, especially if you’re English-speaking. It would be a plus to learn more about Panamanian culture and accept it so that you can interact well with its people.

Retirement planning is very necessary, especially if you are planning to move to Panama. Let the above pros and cons help you decide if Panama is right for you. While other articles only highlight the benefits of retirement in Panama, identifying the disadvantages is also important. Take your time and plan your retirement carefully. Plan a tour of Panama to see what life is like in Panama. Life in Panama has both pros and cons, like all other things.



How to become a pilot – how to get a pilot’s license with the help of flying colors?


How to become a pilot? Let’s find out the answer.

Just dreaming, wake up early in the morning every day and get ready to go to your most beautiful office in the world and your task is to fly through the milk clouds and spectacles and bright sunshine.

Imagine not being surprised if you could rent a plane on the weekends and go on a slow flight with your friends and family to amazing places for fishing, hunting, camping and excursions?

Nothing like the feeling of flying when you fly a big giant plane, passing people, mountains, rivers, forests over 30,000 feet, sitting in your comfortable cabin.

This is the dream of many people along with one big issue in their minds “How to become a pilot”?

Let’s not cheer ourselves up, so a lot of people are reluctant to commit to something like getting a pilot’s license: it’s not a cheap hobby and it’s not a simple hobby. Training pilots can cost several thousand dollars, it can take months before you are ready to get your own plane and flight solo.

There are several pilot licensing requirements that include the facts I mentioned below for quick reference that can help take the first step toward “becoming a pilot”.

  • Suitability: According to the FAA, the candidate must be 17 years old and he must have a 3rd grade medical certificate, in different countries this may vary.
  • Costs: Private aviation is often seen as a luxury given only to the rich. Fortunately, this is not the case, scholarships and education credits are not just for scholars. Many organizations are actively involved in funding new novice pilots. Just keep your attention and ears open, be on the lookout for lucrative flight training offers and be on the lookout to secure training funding.
  • Instructor or school: There you will most likely find half a dozen different instructors or schools. This may seem like a hassle trying to narrow it down. You need to prepare yourself with a basic list of requirements for choosing a flight or school.
  • Reputation.
  • Distance from home.
  • Amenities.
  • Price.
  • Experience of instructor (s).
  • Passing tests: There are actually several different tests that you will need to pass, including final exams. However, I have listed some tests conducted in training.
  • Trail Instructional Flight.
  • PR-Solo, PR-Area Solo and B.A.K – Exam.
  • Plane exam.
  • Written and practical tests.

However, I would like to point out that the above items or topics do not include all scores and are not a training course for your pilot’s exams. Rather, the purpose of this article is to provide you with the right attitude, the right information, and the right way to get closer to getting your pilot’s license.



The flight of an airliner from takeoff to landing


Although commercial airline passengers share problems with airfare, timely work, cramped seating and lost luggage, it is far behind the flight process between the two cities. Indeed, it is rather an orchestration between airlines, airports, government agencies and many other companies. The following sequence of events illustrates this.

1. At the airport:

Preparations for the airline’s schedule or charter flight, whether it is a simultaneous jump or an intercontinental trip of 15 hours or more, begin long before the passenger leaves for the airport and the aircraft presses against its previous segment.

The passengers themselves gradually arrive at check-in, and their luggage is marked, sorted and sent. The cargo is weighed and detected. Aircraft are cleaned, serviced, serviced and serviced.

The cockpit and cockpit arrive at the airport, conduct briefings, but the former considers any special load, flight plan and weather, and calculates the final fuel, which includes the minimum required for the trip, as well as reserve reserves, holds and sabotage.

Equivalent to this process is filling in a manual or computerized sheet that lists and is based on different aircraft loads and ensures that none exceeds their maximums.

For example, the Airbus A-330-200 with 15 crew members will have a dry operating weight of 124,915 kilograms (DOW), to which will be added its estimated fuel take-off, such as 77,600 kilograms, giving it a 202,515-kilogram weight. a kilogram of cargo, consisting of 85 men, 161 women, one child and one infant, will be added to the 8,085-kilogram cargo, consisting of 4,320 kilograms of luggage, 3,630 kilograms of cargo and 135 kilograms of mail.Combined with the previous total mass of passengers this will result in 26,915 kilograms of dry working weight, which, in addition to a dry working mass of 124,915 kilograms, will result in zero fuel of 151,750 kilograms.

Now it has 77,600 kilograms of fuel, this A-330 would weigh 229,350 kilograms, which is just ashamed of its maximum of 230,000 kilograms. After burning the flight 68,200 kilograms of fuel, it will weigh 161,150 kilograms, well below 182,000 kilograms.

In addition to the reliance on many of the previously discussed functions, the final fuel boost is further dependent on the captain. For example, a plane with a final fuel of 56,200 kilograms will take off 55,500 kilograms of fuel, after burning about 400 kilograms of fuel for a taxi, and 44,900 kilograms needed for the flight plan, will give a new flight York-Vienna A-330 -200 in a seven-hour, 12-minute time, but an eight-hour, 28-minute endurance (for drying tanks).

2. At the gate:

The weight and balance function from which these calculations follow involves both weight gain and weight calculations and the distribution of its motion, and ensures that the aircraft is loaded within a safe envelope (TG). , while the balance in flight is achieved by installing a stabilizer finish. Although this is determined automatically in the cockpit, it can be calculated manually, as can happen with Boeing 767 aircraft.

All these calculations further determine the takeoff speed and sash settings.

Although the position of the aircraft was recorded and maintained in its inertial navigation system (INS) when it arrived from its last sector, as well as the compass direction of the true north without magnetic changes and the shape of the earth and motion, it was rebuilt and reintroduced , follow the latitude and longitude coordinates of the terminal building, expressed in degrees north, south, east and west and minutes. For example, the JFK position is 40 degrees, north latitude 38.9 minutes and 076 degrees, 46.9 minutes west.

3. Taxi:

Two important gaps precede the movement of the aircraft: the first, after delivery clearance, allows it to accept and execute its flight plan, and the second, from ground control located on the tower, allows a taxi to the location of the active runway. In fact, the first avenue is provided with its own terminal tower, which tracks the arrivals and departures of traffic from the steering road and to it to the ramp over which it has jurisdiction.

The connection of the headphones to the external port of the aircraft, the maintenance or monitoring of the engine engine ramp are triggered either during the repulsion, which is achieved by means of a tug located on the tug or on the ramp. Some airports, such as Atlanta-Hartsfield International, allow autonomous reverse thrust of aircraft.

During the movement of a taxi, which is no different from the movement of a ground vehicle and is achieved by means of a throttle, moving the steering wheel of the wheel located in the lower left of the captain, and applications to brake kits, taxis and checklists before takeoff in the cockpit and exit. stewardesses or recorded movies in the cabin.

Because the main wheels are located at a considerable distance from the bow wheel, the turns of the ground are made almost at an angle of 90 degrees.

A two-ringing bell indicates a rapid takeoff.

4. Remove:

After releasing one or more clearances, such as “delay”, “movement in position and retention” and / or “clearance for take-off” from the tower, the aircraft places the bow wheel on the center line of the runway. Lighting indicates length: amber denotes the last 3,000 feet, red and white the last 2,000, and all-red the last 1,000.

The parameters of the takeoff throttle depend on the gross weight of the aircraft, the length of the runway and surface conditions, the need to eliminate obstacles and the desire to extend the life of the engine.

The thrust of a jet engine is created by the principle of reaction, as expressed by Sir Isaac Newton’s third law of motion, which states that “for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” Although it may seem complicated at first, a jet engine (without external propellers) entails a four-stroke air intake process; combustion, during which it is mixed with fuel and heated, and then it expands; compression, at this time it converts both the turbine and the compressor by means of a connecting shaft; and exhaust.

When air comes out, it responds by pushing the plane forward and creating traction.

The turbofan consists of traditional power plant components and a front, wrapped fan whose rotating blades send slower, colder and quieter air around the hot rod before it exits through the exhaust cone. This is expressed by the term “bypass coefficient,” which is the ratio of thrust created in the bypass air as opposed to that created by the hot section. Normally a high bypass ratio can have a bypass ratio of approximately five to one and create up to 100,000 pounds of thrust on aircraft such as the Boeing 777-300ER.

Although in-cab instruments such as N1 fan speed and fuel consumption record power plant parameters, one of the most important is its engine pressure ratio (EPR), which is the ratio between the turbine discharge and the compressor inlet pressure.

There are three important, pre-calculated take-off speeds that vary depending on the aircraft, engine power, gross mass, runway length and surface conditions, atmospheric conditions and power settings.

The first, V1 (for speed), is speed in motion and without motion. If an anomaly or emergency occurs at this point, there remains a sufficient length of runway on which to safely stop.

The second, VR, is the speed of the aircraft, and at this point the stabilizers are deflected so that the aircraft can “rotate” on the main landing gear, increasing the angle of attack (AOA) to the moving air and reaching the lift. At this point, there is insufficient runway for interrupted takeoff. If you make an attempt without having an arrestor bed, expect redistribution and possible damage and injury.

The third speed, V2, is a safe take-off speed, which is usually calculated as V2 + 10 knots.

All, of course, vary depending on the type of aircraft, version and engine, but the speed V includes 137 knots for McDonnell-Douglas DC-9-30 with Pratt and Whitney JT8D-15 engines, 147 knots for Boeing 737- 200 with JT8D-15As, 134 knots for Fokker F.28-4000 with Spey Rolls Royce RB.183-555-15A engines, 184 knots for McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30 with General Electric CF6-50C2s, 165 knots for Lockheed L- 1011-200 with Rolls Royce RB.211-524B turbomachines, 177 knots for Boeing 747-300 turbochargers with Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4G2, and 153 knots for Airbus A-300-600R with General Electric CF6 Turbofan -80C6A5.

None of this, to say the least, would have been possible without the raising of the wing. Formed by the pressure difference between its upper and lower surface, the former is reduced by the air passing through it, and the runoff which it produces when it adjoins the boundary layer above its edge.

This can be illustrated by a simple physical principle which states that “as the speed increases, the pressure decreases”. Because objects always follow the path of least resistance, the wing moves upward, creating a lift. This can also be complemented by several other factors, including the shape of the wing plan (shape), proportion (ratio of its length to width), stripping, area, speed, temperature and air density.

To further improve their capabilities, commercial aircraft increase lift at low speeds, but at the same time reduce traction at higher speeds, using leading rails / flaps, which increase the area and spread, and a rear edge flap, usually Fowler type, which are different from single – for two – and trifoliate. The full extension of both, a configuration used only when landing, increases the wing area by 20 percent and its lifting capacity by 80 percent.

With the exception of the Airbus A-300, few modern jets are capable of taking off without some degree of edge extension.

Immediately after takeoff the aircraft will be instructed to resort to takeoff control, which is usually located at the base of the control tower in a windowless facility and can provide altitude clearances and radar vectors. A common instruction would be, “Transatlantic weighs one six zero, rise and maintain 1 zero thousand.”

Aircraft perform prescribed, airport departure courses known as “standard instrument departures” or “SIDs”. For example, the departure of the Ventura Seven from the 24R runway at Los Angeles Airport entails a “rise in the direction of 251 degrees for radar vectors on the (V) VTU VOR / DME, crossing the SMO (Santa Monica) R-154 (154 degrees). radial) at 3000 and below, (from there) continue (along the designated route). All aircraft are awaiting further clearance to the given altitude five minutes after departure. “

Similarly, sending a standard Compton 2G instrument from the 27L runway at London Heathrow Airport, which uses 123.9 MHz (megahertz), requires an initial runway takeoff from the London VOR and then a 7 mile DME (equipment for DME). distance measurement) a turn right on the highway 273 degrees to NDB Woodley (uncounted lighthouse). Finally, the aircraft must maintain a 285-degree direction to VOR Compton, but not rise above 6,000 feet unless prior permission is given.

5. Cruise:

Once a positive lift rate has been established just minutes after taking off from the ground, the aircraft’s landing gear is retracted at approximately 1,000 feet, usually requiring a reduction in nose height.

The turns of the nose wheels are canceled by the zero wheel, while the main wheels are stopped when the brakes are used.

All aircraft operating near airports with terminal control areas (TCAs) must have transponders and altitude coding, and air traffic control under a four-digit code identifies it on radar.

Given the gross weight and speed, high-lift devices of the leading and trailing edges are often fully or gradually retracted, leaving the wing “clean”.

Now installed on its flight plan, the aircraft will be transferred to the Air Route Control Center (ATCC) with radio broadcasts, such as: “Boston Center, this is the Transatlantic One-Six Zero, with you at the level of three flights.” -five-zero “.

The cockpit flight service is likely to have begun.

Altitude – in the form of old, traditional “steam sensors” or a new display with cathode rays (CRT), indicates the altitude and altitude of the aircraft, but they do not necessarily match, and both can vary greatly between shutdown and landing.

As the aircraft lifts, the static pressure applied to the hull decreases, and the capsule inside the instrument expands, transmitting this change, through mechanical communication, to the instrument in the cockpit, thus measuring and indicating the height, which may be surprising. little relation to the actual altitude of the aircraft.

If, for example, it flies at an altitude of 5,000 feet, it may be at that altitude above average sea level (MSL), but if it passes through a 2,000-foot mountain, it is really only 3,000 above ground level (AGL), which is what and talk can change quickly by continuing the cruise, especially at high speeds.

Topographical variations, from a small lake to Everest, are innumerable, and the equality of altitude and altitude occurs only when it is above sea level.

In order to increase the accuracy of the approach, a radio altimeter is used, which bounces off the radio wave and then measures the exact height above the ground, when the aircraft usually does not exceed 2,500 feet.

While the pressure altitude is set equal to the pressure of the designated airport, it is given a standard pressure setting in the cruise, which is 29.92 inches of mercury (b.c.) in North America and 1,013.2 millibars (mb) elsewhere.

Altitudes above 28,000 feet are considered flight level (FL). So 36,000 feet is a flight level of three to six zeros that drops the last two digits.

Speed ​​is also different, but measured in knots, which is equivalent to a nautical mile. Ground speed (GS) is a measurement of an aircraft’s speed relative to the ground, while true air speed (TAS) is its speed relative to the air through which it passes. Wind speed and direction cause changes.

Navigation, following the control of the air traffic of the aircraft, instrument flight rules (IFR), the flight is achieved by a number of methods. The first of them is VOR.

Transmitting very high frequencies (and thus its “VOR” range) from 108.0 to 117.9 MHz, it provides guidance lines to and from more than 700 stations in the US alone, creating reports or points that are interconnected produce “winners” of airways below 18,000 feet and “jets” above that airliners ply.

VOR signals can travel up to 230 nautical miles, potentially creating an airway of 460 miles, and the position of the aircraft to or from it is considered, respectively, internal and output radial when it first flies to it and then from it.

The displays that show up consist of a radio magnetic needle (RMI) that points to a ground beacon, and a vertical orange bar on the aircraft’s main compass system.

Usually housed with a VOR beacon – it is a distance measuring equipment (DME) that transmits in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) range from 962 to 1213 MHz and provides digital reading, through the aircraft receiver, of the distance of its inclination. to the lighthouse itself.

The latest and most accurate way to navigate is to create 32 orbital satellites of global positioning (GPS) in orbit, which determine it by the time difference between sending and receiving a signal during triangulation, which includes three satellites equipped with atomic clocks. themselves, giving a range of readings.

The use of four such satellites, which eliminates ionosphere and troposphere delays, results in the determination of latitude, longitude, altitude, and time.

Because flight plan coordinates can only be located 25 miles apart, a 5,000-mile sector can consist of about 200 of them, or much more than VOR / DME points. However, they are counted as the aircraft passes, and between them is calculated the estimated time (ETE) and fuel burning.

Atlantic transitions using latitude and longitude coordinates are under the jurisdiction of the Atlantic Control, which is subdivided into western space from Greenland to the Caribbean and controlled by Gender and New York, and eastern at 300 degrees and controlled. by the combined Shannon and Prestwick air traffic zone designated by Shanvik.

Каб размясціць беспрэцэдэнтную колькасць і частату трансатлантычных пераездаў, паўтара дзясятка ўсходне-заходніх, паралельных паўночнаатлантычных шляхоў, заснаваных на лепшых даступных маршрутах і найбольш спрыяльных ветрах, публікуюцца два разы на дзень.

Літары на ўсходзе – альфа, брава, чарлі, дэльта, рэха і факстрот. Дапушчальныя для перасячэння паміж узбярэжжамі Канады і Ірландыі / Злучанага Каралеўства, яны складаюцца з дзесяціхвілінных аднолькавых і 60 марскіх міль розных падоўжных аддзяленняў каляіны і 2000 футаў аднолькавай і аднолькавай вышыні розных вертыкальных падзелаў.

Падвесны, высакахуткасны замак Aileron забяспечвае мінімальны кут круізу. Хоць вышыні прызначаны палётным планам, валавая вага, цяга рухавіка і здольнасць крыла спачатку могуць запатрабаваць паэтапных уздымаў – гэта значыць, паступова большыя вышыні палягчаюцца спальваннем паліва і зніжэннем вагі, хоць экіпажы могуць патрабаваць розных узроўняў палёту, каб пазбегнуць або звесці да мінімуму надвор’е і турбулентнасць выклікалі дыскамфорт пасажыраў. Пры наяўнасці могуць быць запытаны нават розныя трэкі.

Выдатак паліва і параметры дросельнай засланкі вар’іруюцца ў залежнасці ад самалёта, яго валавой масы, вышыні і рэжыму палёту. Падчас ўзлёту поўная дросік да разрадкі ўзлёту / паездкі (TOGA) можа прывесці да спальвання паліва на Boeing 747-400 у 32 тоны за гадзіну, хоць гэтыя налады могуць падтрымлівацца толькі няшмат хвілін, пакуль ён не будзе знаходзіцца ў паветры, у той час як ён будзе скарачацца да траціны, ад дзесяці да 12 тон, у круіз.

Нягледзячы на ​​свой прагрэс, аэракасмічна-брытанскі аэракасмічны канкорд, з-за разрэджанага паветра, у якім ён здзейсніў звышгукавы круіз, і немагчымасці ўстаноўкі турбакетаў вялікага дыяметра ў каранёвай канфігурацыі крыла падтрымліваў поўныя параметры дросельнай заслоны свайго Rolls Royce, абсталяванага фарсажкай Olympus рухавікі на працягу ўсяго яго палёту. Павольны і прахалодны абыход паветра быў бы неэфектыўным у вытворчасці цягі ў такой атмасферы. Тым не менш, каб пазбегнуць перакрыццяў тэмпературы носа і рамы, яму далі плошчу вышыні, на якой ён мог павольна падымацца, паколькі зніжэнне вагі паліва паліва інакш зацямніла б яго ніколі не перавышаную хуткасць.

Неад’емнай і незаменнай для любога сучаснага самалёта з’яўляецца сістэма кіравання палётамі (FMS). Размешчаны на цэнтральнай кансолі кабіны паміж капітанам і першым афіцэрам, ён прапануе інтэграваныя функцыі інерцыйнай навігацыі, прадукцыйнасці і кіравання палівам, што дазваляе ўстаўляць альбо запісваць незлічоныя старонкі інфармацыі пры дапамозе пранумараванай і надпісанай клавіятуры, уключаючы SID аэрапорта і STAR, а таксама план палёту самалёта да месца прызначэння.

Праз сістэму аўтаматычны дросель падтрымлівае належны каэфіцыент ціску ў рухавіку ў рэжыме VNAV (вертыкальная навігацыя) падчас уздыму, круізу і спуску. Тым больш што ён атрымлівае і апрацоўвае цэлы шэраг, які перавышае інфармацыю аб магчымасцях чалавечага мозгу, напрыклад, хуткасць вентылятара N1, расход паліва і хуткасць зямлі, заўсёды забяспечваючы аптымальную працу ў адпаведнасці з выбранымі параметрамі, як, напрыклад, лепшы час, мінімальны паліва, максімальны асартымент і мінімальны кошт.

6. Спуск і пасадка:

Атрымаўшы свой першапачатковы прабег з цэнтра кіравання паветраным маршрутам, пад юрысдыкцыяй якога ён знаходзіцца ў цяперашні час, самалёт пачынае ад аднаго да двух градусаў, страты вышыні 1000 аб / мін, у цяперашні час заключаны ў ўсё больш гучныя слізгаценні, а сцюардэсы замацоўваюць кабіну , закрываючы ўсе аддзяленні і скрыні для галёнак, сочачы за тым, каб сядзенні былі ў іх вертыкальным становішчы, што рамяні бяспекі былі прышпілены, багажнік не перашкаджаў ніякім праходам, каб надземныя аддзяленні для захоўвання былі зашчаплены, і што дзельніцы штор класаў адчыненыя, і магчыма, вяртанне паліто і іншага адзення для пасажыраў першага і бізнес-класа.

Ціск у кабіне усталёўваецца роўным узроўню аэрапорта прыбыцця. Аўтаматычная інфармацыйная служба тэрміналаў (ATIS) – папярэдне і прагрэсіўна запісванае паведамленне аб пакрыцці хмары, столі, бачнасці, тыпе і ступені ападкаў (калі такія маюцца), тэмпературы, тэмпературы расы, хуткасці ветру і кірунку, настройцы вышыня барометрычнага ціску, Актыўная ўзлётна-пасадачная паласа (ы), тып інструментальнага падыходу і спецыяльная інфармацыя, напрыклад, палявыя ўмовы, зачыненыя дарогі, непрацуючыя аб’екты і зрух ветру, доступны і напісаны па меры неабходнасці абнаўленняў, у выніку чаго “інфармацыйная альфа”, “інфармацыйная брава, “” інфармацыя Чарлі. “

Прасвет, ніжэйшы за 14000 футаў, ужо перададзены адпаведным кантролем прыбыццяў. Налада дросельнай засланкі, хутчэй за ўсё, у халастым рэжыме.

Як гэта адбылося пасля вылету са стандартным вылетам прыбора або SID, падыходы маюць свой аналаг – стандартныя маршруты прыбыцця альбо ЗВЯД, хоць вектарызацыя кіравання паветраным рухам павялічвае адлегласці паміж дрэннымі надвор’ямі і / або пікавымі ўмовамі руху, а таксама пры размяшчэнні самалётаў Звычайна распаўсюджаныя ўтрымання над VOR, падчас якіх яны праводзяць чатыры мадэлі марскіх іпадровых дарог.

Напрыклад, “Чатыры прыбыцці ў Дэкал” у Форт-Лодэрдейл / Міжнародны аэрапорт Галівуда, пералічаныя тры пераходы з Фрыпорта, Насау і Урса. Сярэдняя, ​​з Насау, Багамскія выспы, цягне за сабой 315 радыя на 300-градусным кірунку і на вышыні 6000 футаў ад ZQA VOR / DME, перш чым перахопліваць радыя ZBV 100 да ZBV VORTAC (навігацыйная дапамога, якая складаецца з размяшчаецца сумесна ВКФ далёкасць – VOR – маяк і тактычная паветраная навігацыйная сістэма – TACAN – маяк), працягваючыся на 100 радыях ад Кэры на загалоўку ў 280 градусаў, і нарэшце перахопліваецца 300 радыяльных на загалоўку ў 300 градусаў і падтрымліваць 4000 футаў да Dekal. “Адтуль, з-за Дэкала, чакаюць радары вектара да канчатковага курсу.”

Тыпы падыходу вар’іруюцца ад візуальнага, VOR / DME, ILS і візуальнага спалучанага ILS, сярод іншых.

ILS, прыборная сістэма прызямлення, забяспечвае дакладны падыход ад дзесяці да 50 марскіх міль, на трохступенчатай верталётнай пляцоўцы, да ўзлётна-пасадачнай паласы, абсталяванай як лакалізатарам, які служыць радыёсігналам, які прапануе навядзенне цэнтральнай лініі, так і самой глідэслапе. , што палягчае кіраўніцтва профілем да пункту прызямлення.

Тры маркеры ILS-маркера, якія перадаюць на частаце 75 МГц, паказваюць астатнюю адлегласць да гэтай кропкі: знешні маркер (OM), размешчаны прыблізна ў пяці марскіх мілях ад прызямлення, сярэдні маркер (ММ) ад аднаго да 0,5 міль, і ўнутраны маркер (IM) на парозе.

Хуткасць парога вар’іруецца ў залежнасці ад самалётаў, напрыклад, 137 вузлоў для рухавікоў Boeing 727-200 з рухавікамі Pratt і Whitney JT8D-17, 142 вузла для McDonnell-Douglas DC-8-71 з турбовентиляторами CFM-56-2-C5, 146 вузлоў для a Lockheed L-1011-500 з Rolls Royce RB.211-524Bs, і 141 вузел для Boeing 747-100 з General Electric CF6-45A2s.

Пасля таго, як быў адпраўлены ў вежу аэрапорта, падтрымліваючы прыблізнае значэнне 1,2 ціску ў рухавіку і фіксаваўшы прыборную сістэму прызямлення, самалёт пашырае свае вядучыя і задняе краёвыя прыборы, якія павялічваюць плошчы і разваліны, мяркуючы, што ўсё больш дробная хуткасць ракавіны, магчыма, ад 100 да 50-мі / мін. Спойлеры ўзброеныя, каб працягнуць сцісканне асноўнага кола, і магчыма ўсталяваць тармазы для дасягнення аптымальнай адлегласці прыпынку ў залежнасці ад даўжыні ўзлётна-пасадачнай паласы, хуткасці прызямлення і ўмоў паверхні, напрыклад, вады ці лёду.

Перайшоўшы вонкавы маркер, ён выдае свае «выдаленыя на зямлю» інструкцыі.

Падтрымліваючы 1,14 каэфіцыент ціску ў рухавіку і маючы вышыню, кірунак, хуткасць, хуткасць спуску, налады магутнасці і час, каб экіпаж пільна адсочваўся, ён праходзіць праз парог, яго вышыня альбо выклікаецца лётаючым пілотам, альбо аўтаматычна абвяшчаецца.

“50 футаў … 40 … 30.”

Засунуўшы нос і прафілюючы яго для кантакту з асноўным колам, самалёт апускаецца апошнія некалькі футаў.

“20 футаў … 10 … рэтард (аўтазапчастак закрыць).”

Панэлі спойлера верхняй крылы адхіляюцца на цэлых 60 градусаў, што перашкаджае ўздыму паветранага патоку і пераносіць вагу самалёта на дыскі. Зваротная цяга, як правіла, з дапамогай расшыраных дзвярэй, ўключаецца, калі выхлап знаходзіцца збоку, а затым накіраваны наперад, што дазваляе знізіць час запаволення і мінімізаваць выкарыстанне тормаза, што выклікае значную тэмпературу. кіраванне дасягаецца пры дапамозе руля пры дапамозе педаляў руля.

Націск ярма ў пярэдняй паласе дае магчымасць насавым дыскам наладзіць кантакт з узлётна-пасадачнай паласой, а рулявое кіраванне пераносіцца на рулявую машыну каля дзесяці вузлоў.

Звяртаючыся на зямлю, ён атрымлівае інструкцыі таксі да сваіх варот або стаянкі, дзе пасажыры высаджваюцца, іх багаж адпраўляецца ў карусель прыбыцця, а груз перадаецца на склад для сартавання.

Гатовы кіраваць сваім наступным сектарам, які можа адбыцца праз 30 хвілін альбо праз некалькі гадзін, самалёт зноў будзе падвяргацца таму ж працэсу.



Travel to Spain – Spanish regional travel guide


Up to 60 million visitors annually travel to Spain to enjoy the country’s 315 sunny days and its rich and diverse history and culture. As a result, the Spanish government annually spends millions of euros on tourism and transport infrastructure to serve the country’s growing population and an ever-increasing number of visitors.

Thus, Spain should be one of the easiest and most accessible among the popular places in the world in terms of its accessibility – especially from the UK and North America. For example, cheap flights are available from all UK airports to major and regional airports throughout Spain daily and direct flights from major Spanish hubs to the US daily. As an alternative for British and European travelers there are excellent nationwide trains, buses and ferries and excellent access for those who prefer to travel by car.

This article breaks down the main options for Spanish travel by region.

Northern Spain – The easiest way to access this region is by plane from one of the main airports in the UK, which flies directly to Bilbao or from the US to Malaga with a transfer to Bilbao. It is possible to connect with Iberia flights for communication via the North and throughout Spain. “Elsa” and “Eurolines” have complex bus networks, and you can travel all over Europe to Bilbao or San Sebastian and then pick up local carriages and rail links. You can also sail from the British port of Plymouth to Santandra with the ports of Brittany, or you can take the P&O route from Portsmouth to Bilbao.

Castile and La Rioja – The cheapest way to access these regions is to fly to one of the main Spanish hubs – Barcelona, ​​Bilbao, Madrid, for example, and then travel or get flights. You can contact Iberia for flights to Lagrona in La Rioja or Valladolid in Castile. Castile, Rioja and Navarre are served by an excellent road network, which makes the detour easy and again, the buses “Elsa” will connect you with the main and small destinations in the regions and across the country.

Aragon, Navarre and Pyrenees – As these regions can be easily reached by car or bus from Madrid, it may be best to get a cheap flight to Madrid and then take the E90 route to the center of the region. You can think of a connecting flight to Zaragoza in the center of the region, which could be a good place to explore in this extraordinary part of Spain. Alternatively, access to this region can be done by rail. Eurolines coaches will connect you with Pamplona or Zaragoza; The Eurostar railway will take you from the UK to Paris, and from Paris you will be able to hook up a high-speed rail link to Madrid … In Madrid, the options are varied: from local rail and bus connections, car rentals and local flights to Iberia.

Costa Brava and Costa Dorada – As we move east to the beautiful coastal regions of northern Catalonia, the Costa Brava and the Costa Dorada, such accessibility increases. Barcelona Airport is the main airport for these regions and it welcomes cheap flights from the UK and US. You can then connect to Girona in the Costa Brava region or Reus in the Costa Dorada region. Barcelona itself has an underground rail network for access throughout the city, and if you want to travel further on the Spanish rail service, RENFE has a variety of trunk and local services serving both regions. The main coastal road in the Costa Brava is the A7, while the A2 will take you west of Barcelona, ​​and the C32 will take you south of Barcelona to the Costa Dorado. Barcelona has a port with ferry services to Genoa, Rome, Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza.

Central Spain and Madrid – The main airport of Central Spain is Madrid, and it accepts direct flights from all major airports in the UK and US, as well as from some smaller ones. Because Madrid is such a big city, you can imagine that it acts as an important travel center for the whole of Spain. Bus and rail networks and major highways all radiate from the city. Madrid has two main stations that travel by train to regional and international destinations, and the city also has an underground metro system.

Costa del Azahar – The main travel center of this region is Valencia with the city’s airport, which uses direct flights to the UK. To access the rest of the region you can use RENFE services from Valencia or enjoy the city via FGV trams and underground trains. If you want to travel from the coast to Madrid, take the N430 and A3; to explore the coast take A7. Again, Eurolines buses work with towns and cities in the region, including Valencia, Sagunto and Vinaros. And last but not least, Valencia is a port city and has ferries across the Mediterranean with holiday destinations including Malta, Ibiza, Italy, etc.

Costa Blanca – Most visitors to this region enter through Alicante Airport. With a good road and Alicante Costa Brava airport offering great car rental opportunities, many prefer to get to the rest of the region by road, although RENFE, Eurolines and Alsa offer excellent rail and bus options.

Costa Calida – Murcia is the main airport in the region, although Alicante Airport is also available, which gives visitors and residents additional opportunities and benefits. From Murcia there are a number of major train services including direct links to Madrid. In terms of roads, the Costa Calida is a region with an excellent network of major roads and routes: the N340 runs from Alicante through Murcia to the Costa del Sol, the A7 embracing the coast and local, national and international bus lines area. In the port city of Cartagena in 2003, a passenger terminal was built, which now serves as a destination for some major cruise liners en route to and from the destinations of France, Greece and the Black Sea coast.

Costa de Almeria – You are spoiled by your choice when it comes to airports serving this region, you can fly to Alicante or Murcia and travel by road or rail to this region, or you can fly directly to Almeria Airport. The cheapest flights are often in Alicante. RENFE provides major electric trains from Almeria to the cities of Granada, Eurolines, Alsa and Enatcar, and offers bus services via the Costa de Almeria. The most important routes in the region are the N340, which runs from the Costa Calida through the city of Almeria and south to the Costa del Sol, the A92, which connects Granada, and the A348, which connects Almeria with Alpujaras. In terms of access to the sea, the Trans-Mediterranean has ferries from the port of Almeria to North Africa.

Costa del Sol and Andalusia – If you can’t get to this region of Spain, you have to do something wrong – or maybe just hope to travel at the peak of the season! The main airport is Malaga, and almost every airline you can think of flies from almost every airport in the UK and US you can think of! If you can’t get a flight and are in the UK, you can think of a trip to the Costa del Sol! In this case, it is best to sail from Plymouth to Santander or from Portsmouth to Bilbao, and then drive 900 kilometers south. If you start in Bilbao, you will need A68 and A1 to Burgos, or from Santander you will get N623 to Burgos – then from Burgos go on N1 to Madrid. From Madrid to Granada, from Granada to Malaga … old man! You can also get on the Euroline bus from the UK to Estepona or Malaga or travel from Paris by high-speed night train to Madrid and connect with the AVE fast train to Cordoba, which in turn connects with the Costa del Sol regional services.

Costa de la Luz and Gibraltar – You can either fly to Gibraltar, or to Jerez in the region, or take advantage of the many cheap flights to Spain that land in Malaga. Ferry routes between Tarifa and Algeciras in Spain and Tangier in Morocco, bus and rail transport across Europe and via Spain to the Costa de la Luz and strong road links with the E15, which serves Gibraltar from the mainland.

Regardless of the final destination, you should be able to find cheap flights to some of Spain’s major airports and then take advantage of local and regional travel services to access your destination of choice; as I hope I have shown, the whole of Spain is incredibly easily accessible.



Aircraft Cessna in comparison – Cessna 172 Vs The Cessna 182


By ignorance, the Cessna 172 and Cessna 182 are no different. Both have 4 seats, high wing planes that tighten each wing. But for pilots they are significantly different aircraft.

The main difference between 172 and 182 is the engines. Both were produced for more than 40 years and during this time the plant came with different engines. Since the 172N was introduced in 1977, the factory standard engine has produced 160 hp. Prior to that, 172 engines ranged from 145 to 160 hp. Many older aircraft have been upgraded in the market after the creation of more powerful engines, including the popular 180 hp. version. All such changes are made through an STC or supplemental type certificate issued by the FAA.

Although the 182 runs on several different engines, the standard non-turbo models always weighed in at 230 hp. This difference in horsepower has several consequences. One, of course, is speed. 182 at 15-20 knots faster than 172. It can also climb 200 feet per minute faster. Usually aircraft with larger engines can also lift more weight. The standard late model – 172 maximum weight – 2450 pounds, and 182 3100 pounds. Not all that difference is a payload, an empty 182 – about 300 pounds. heavier than his smaller cousin.

Not all differences between 172 and 182 are as easy to evaluate as performance and performance. Being heavier, the 182 is a more stable aircraft than the 172. It doesn’t bounce around very hard, and tends to track better in the direction you want. This is a good feature if you are going to do a lot of flying on instruments. (Flying in the clouds or without a visual reference to the ground.)

With more than 200 horsepower and controlled propeller pitch, the 182 is also considered a high-performance aircraft. This means that in order to manage them, you need additional instructions, both according to the regulations and the requirements of insurance companies.

In terms of pricing, the typical price for a used 1978 172 would be as low as $ 40,000, while a similarly equipped 182 would be at least $ 20,000. In 182 it will be more expensive and own. Insurance, inspection, engine overhaul and operating costs will be much higher. For example, 182 will consume about 3 gallons per hour more fuel.

None of these things make one plane better than another. What sets the plane apart is how you intend to use it. If you want a simple aircraft that is relatively cheap to operate, it requires 172. If you want to use your aircraft for transportation and are going to travel in the weather, the 182 is best suited to your goals.

Finally, as for distinguishing one plane from another, it is the nose. The 182 has a fuller cap section to cover the larger engine and more streamlined windshield.



History of Delta Airlines and its TriStar fleet


As the oldest existing passenger airline, Delta itself dates back to 1925, when in its original form it performed dust services like the Huff Daland Dusters with drill 31. Nicknamed the “Puffer,” it was the first agricultural aircraft specifically designed to protect cotton fields of the southern United States from large weevils.

The independence and name of Delta Air Service three years later put this young concern on the threshold of gradual growth.

A light route network with four destinations has made it possible to serve Dallas, Shreveport, Monroe and Jackson since 17 June 1929.

A decade later discarding his image of the farm, he acquired the Lockheed L-10A Electra and Douglas DC-3 airliners, facilitating service after awarding routes to Savannah, Knoxville and Cincinnati, and from Chicago to Miami in 1946, albeit through these cities with additional landing in Charleston.

Even larger, faster, and more sophisticated four-stroke liners enhanced its image: Douglas DC-4 replaced DC-3 in the Midwest Florida run, DC-6 replaced DC-4 in December 1948, and DC-7 replaced it on April 1, 1954. .

Its coverage increased significantly four years later, on May 1, when it merged with Chicago and the South.

The Delta entered the jet era on September 18, 1959 with the Douglas DC-8-10, and after that the Convair CV-880 was made less than a year later in the short- and medium-range sector. Despite the speed advantage achieved by Rolls Royce Conway engines, it was both destructive and resinous.

In 1962, South African authority elevated the Delta to transcontinental carrier status, allowing it to move from Dallas to Los Angeles and San Francisco. Other services have expanded services: from Atlanta to Jacksonville and Orlando, and to Phoenix and Las Vegas. However, like the East, it remained primarily an East Coast airline.

Too large and providing more range than necessary, in 1965 the Douglas DC-9 dual aircraft was replaced by the Douglas DC-9 dual aircraft with a low-power US domestic sector.

The extensive carrier era began early next decade with the Boeing 747-100 in 1970, the McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-10 two years later to provide the necessary power during the delayed delivery of the Lockheed L-1011 and the TriStar itself.

Acquiring Northeast Airlines on August 1, 1972 to obtain its highly sought-after solar routes, he purchased Boeing 727-100 aircraft and was able to open service from Montreal and Boston to Miami and count Bermuda and Nassau and Freeport in the Bahamas network.

Works with downtown Atlanta, with traffic centers in Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Dallas / Ft. Worth, Fort Lauderdale, Memphis, New Orleans, New York and Tampa, a decade later Delta grew into the third largest carrier, carrying 34.7 million passengers in 1979 and operating 1,300 daily flights to 80 destinations in the United States, Canada and Bermuda. , Bahamas, Puerto Rico, UK and West Germany. The appropriate slogan was “Delta is ready when you are”.

Its growth, accelerated by purchases of European routes Pan Am and Western Airlines, has become exponential. As evidenced by the voluminous 433-page system schedule on July 1, 1988, it made more than 2,200 sorties from about 380 aircraft to 156 destinations in 42 U.S. states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, and 11 foreign countries, including Canada, Bermuda, and the Bahamas. islands, Mexico, Ireland, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, mostly from the centers of Atlanta, Cincinnati, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Salt Lake City.

The significantly mixed fleet of Boeing, Lockheed and McDonnell-Douglas was 727-200 (12 first class passengers and 136 coaches), DC-9-30s (12F and 86Y), 737-200s (either 12F and 95Y, or 8F and 107Y), DC-10-10s (36F and 248Y), L-1011-1s, -250s and -500s (which had several configurations, including 32F and 270Y, 12F, 54C, 203Y, 12F, 40C and 189Y, and 18F , 64C and 140Y), MD-88s (14F and 128Y), 737-300s (8F and 120Y), 757-200s (16F and 171Y), 767-200s (18F and 186Y), 767-300s (24F and 230Y) and DC-8-71s (18F and 194Y).

While previously the emphasis was on standardizing the fleet and the minimum number of aircraft types to reduce crew training, maintenance and spare parts stocks that appeared then megacars such as the Delta, which by definition served every length and density of the route, From the 100-mile supply sector to high-potential transcontinental and intercontinental travel, a wide range of types and versions is needed, as one integrated airline had to efficiently perform the work of many: suburban, large regional, American national, large and mega.

As a result, four major U.S. regionals, acting as Delta Connection, collectively offered 3,900 daily flights to 240 top Delta cities and included Atlantic Airlines Atlantic S DHC-7, SD3-60s, EMB-120s and EMB- 110s, Business Express with F.27s, SD3-60s, S-340s and B1900s), Comair with S-340, Metropol Fairchild Swearingen and EMB-110s, and Skywest with EMB-120s and Swearingen Metros.

As the world’s largest TriStar operator with three versions and two sub-variants, Delta, considering it the “queen of the fleet”, placed its original order for the 24 L-1011 in 1968 to complement the existing DC-8, but offer an enhanced, wider comfort and a quieter, more energy-efficient turbofan with a high bypass ratio, after the ad: “Superb $ 18 million TriStar, the newest member of Delta Air Lines’ wide-ranging fleet.” It has left most of its other U.S. carrier competitors, including American, continental, national, northwestern, single and western, to order competing DC-10-10s.

Forced to periodically work with five McDonnell-Douglas counters due to the termination of Rolls Royce’s bankruptcy program, he eventually sold them to United, although they were leased between 1972 and 1975. what. Their power, in the case, has squeezed demand.

The first L-1011-1, registered by the N701DA, was tuned for the first 50 and 200 passengers. But that was just the beginning of a story with a type that would become synonymous with a carrier in Atlanta, another 40 acquired in 1973 and 1983.

Because his route system consisted mainly of short- and medium-range sectors, it was in the air for about two hours at a time, connecting cities less than 1,000 miles apart.

Exceeding the range of its first transatlantic award along the route, from Atlanta to London-Gatwick, it was complemented by two L-1011-100s leased from TWA, and they were eventually also located in Frankfurt and Tokyo.

In 1980, the supply of three truly intercontinental L-1011-500s was required.

The program to acquire TriStar proved to be extensive. Fourteen L-1011-500s (six from Air Canada, three from Pan Am and five from United) were purchased between 1984 and 1992, and ten L-1011-1s were purchased from Eastern between 1991 and 1992.

In addition to leasing two L-1011-200 engines running on RB.211-524B engines, it changed one L-1011-1 standard to -200 and the remaining 6-250 configurations, allowing each to work with longer range sectors.

Instrumental to service the European transatlantic routes he purchased from Pan Am in the summer of 1992 – up to 80 daily flights, this type, under the guise of -500, regularly made the trans-Pacific crossing to Anchorage-Hong Kong 5074 miles, its longest .

Although budget constraints did not allow Lockheed to offer what could be the ultimate replacement in the form of a stretched L-1011-400, the type continued to run the Delta route system until about 30 daily flights were considered for TriStar by the end of 2000, progressive replacements taking form Boeing 767-200, -300 and -400 and MD-11, possibly the final triumph of McDonnell-Douglas over Lockheed.

First delivered in November 1979, the N728DA, L-1011-1, performed the last Delta flight from Atlanta to Orlando and returned on July 31, 2001, receiving a double salute water cannon after landing on Georgian soil. During his career, he flew nearly 31,000 flight cycles, 66,000 hours and more than 27 million miles.

70 TriStars of all versions, which Delta eventually operated for more than a quarter of a century, accounted for 30 percent of Lockheed’s total production.



Things you need to know if you want to become a flight instructor


If you decide to become a flight instructor, then you should know that it will be very tough but helpful. Honestly, if you decide to continue the course, you may realize that you need to work too hard to get a good rating. Before you begin, then there are some things you need to know.

Eyes, arms, legs

If you decide to become an instructor, you need to find a way to explain aviation knowledge in words. This can be very difficult, especially since you have to explain all the maneuvers orally, step by step. When a person is a pilot, verbal communication is limited. You will need to learn to manage students. You need to explain to them exactly how to move your arms, legs and eyes.

You also need to learn to use some external visual cues rather than stay focused on the instruments.


To succeed, you will need to train well and train. You will need to learn all the basics. You may need to revisit some topics that you may have studied as a pilot, as they form the basis of the training. If you have the tuition at your fingertips, then you will be able to guide your students through anything you want. You will also be able to tell if the student is ready for the test or not.


If you want to succeed as an instructor, then you have to let your students make mistakes. This is one of the best ways for them to learn valuable lessons. Don’t fix all the problems students have without letting them fix them themselves. You may be willing to take responsibility in case things go wrong, but don’t make it too obvious. Allowing your students to cope with challenges is the best way to give them confidence as well as build their skills.

Lesson plans and outlines

To become a great instructor, you have to learn to do your things. Write sketches and lesson plans. Although there are many materials on the Internet, refrain from using them as is. If you are writing on your own, you will definitely have a good time when you go for a checkup. Writing allows you to customize your plans, and here you get your own teaching style that you can use after completing the course.

Don’t do this if you just want to build a clock

It is not uncommon to meet face to face with a bad instructor. In most cases, such a person focuses on building time rather than flight. Before taking such a course, you need to evaluate your own identity and whether you really want to teach. You need to know that being an instructor is not all about flying, sometimes you need to stay on the ground to prepare.

Becoming a flight instructor is not for the faint of heart. Be true to your present to achieve a satisfying career.